My Review of Pedagogy of Hope by Paulo Freire

Pedagogy of Hope: Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Impacts)Pedagogy of Hope: Reliving Pedagogy of the Oppressed by Paulo Freire

My rating: 4 of 5 stars

The book is essential for Freirians; first-time readers of his work want to go to the original, and then onward. Eventually, come back to this book and you’ll appreciate its depth a lot.

Freire examined his own career consistently, revisiting his beliefs as often as some people change socks. This book was written a quarter century after Pedagogy of the Oppressed, with the purpose of reliving the experience of writing it. He examines his own experiences, offering some of the personal story behind his society-changing critical theory. This book is for people who’ve read the original and want to know more, particularly from a humanizing perspective.

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My Review of “Beyond Resistance”

Beyond Resistance! Youth Activism and Community Change: New Democratic Possibilities for Practice and Policy for America’s Youth was edited by Shawn Ginwright. This is my review for The Freechild Project.

For youth workers with a preconceived notion about the roles of young people in society, this collection may be challenging. For teachers who think they know the power of students, Ginwright may be shocking. For young people who think they understanding “the movement”, this book may be eye-opening.

Ginwright collects dozens of the best examples of youth-led and youth-driven activism and refines them to their finest points, charging the reader to do more than complain about apathy or revel in cynicism. He leaves us no choice other than getting up to do something. Thanks Shawn – we need that. This book is an incredible read for anyone interested in the movement at any level.

Before this book the reader might want to see Global Uprising : Confronting the Tyrannies of the 21st Century : Stories from a New Generation of Activists; after it you might want to reference Future 500: Youth Organizing and Activism in the United States.


Order Beyond Resistance! Youth Activism and Community Change: New Democratic Possibilities for Practice and Policy for America’s Youth.

My Review of “Proto Fascism In America”

Proto Fascism In America: Neoliberalism And The Demise Of Democracy was written by Henry Giroux. This is my review for The Freechild Project.


This book is an intelligent, defining account of our times. Scholar Henry Giroux effectively and concisely exposes the tyranny of the Bush Administration, and indisputably links corporations to the highjacking of American democracy. Throughout this publication Giroux draws powerful correlations between news accounts and critical analysis, without oversimplifying or patronizing the reader. He offers a necessary guide to how the issues tie together: prisons, police, spies, weapons, soldiers + racial discrimination, demonizing youth, targeting young people of color for the military + defunding public services, defeating the Clean Air Act, Christian conservatism = neoliberal terrorism in our times. Most importantly though, Giroux details our need to develop a new way of approaching democracy that embraces democratic action and engagement for all people, especially young people.

Giroux explains that part of this new approach is connecting the apparent intransigence of the public today to the larger forces of the anti-community: crass consumerism and the multi-national corporations which have driven the marketplace into every aspect of public life: education, health care, and the duties of the government across the board. Giroux has gone beyond his former analysis of public education and popular media. Instead, his critical eye turns now towards the entities that democratic society insists we all be responsible for: government, community, and our social fabric.

Through this lens Giroux identifies the Bush Administration as hostile towards young people, by militarizing public schools, over-incarcerating young people of color, and defunding youth programs. He writes,

“…[F]ear, punishment, and containment continue to override the need to provide health care for… children, increase the ranks of teachers… repair deteriorating schools, and improve youth services that for many poor students, would provide an alternative to the direct pipeline between school and the local police station, the courts, or prison.”

Giroux particularly identifies George Bush’s refusal to ratify the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and carefully deconstructs the effects of education systems that serve as the deliverers and enforcers of a neoliberal agenda intent on taking freedom away from children and youth, people of color and working-class communities. By exposing a school reform agenda intent on taking away the rights of youth, Giroux exposes,

“the not-so-hidden curriculum… that kids can’t be trusted and that their rights aren’t worth protecting. At the same time, they are being educated to passively accept military-sanctioned practices organized around maintaining control, surveillance, and unquestioned authority.”
Giroux contends that this agenda, doubled with the agenda of the “military-industrial-education complex,” reinforces the work of Army recruiters who are speaking directly to youth today. By “discover[ing] hip hop and urban culture,” and disregarding the problems young people, particularly urban and low-income youth, face at home today, the Army lures young people with “the Hummer, where they can pep the sound system or watch recruitment videos.” Giroux explores the effects this has on marginalized youth, as “school becomes a training ground for their ‘graduation’ into containment centers such as prisons and jails.” One is that “young people no longer learn military values in training camps or military-oriented schools.” They are learned through popular media and people: movies, MTV, music, friends, and family.

Young people are not islands from themselves, disconnected from larger concerns in society. Through action for social change all young people can become actors in the larger spectrum of society. It is through these actions that youth can become engaged in democracy and effectively learn from their life experiences. Neoliberalism is the attempt of consumerist, corporate America to steal politics, history, and culture from popular society, instead replacing them with an economy of greed, and consumption. This book provides an critical bridge for facilitators of youth action to connect young people to the fight against modern American fascism, and challenge young people with a powerful, accessible call to action.

In the end, Giroux calls on us, individual people, to fight neoliberalism in our lives and to end its widespread grips on our society. Young people are central to this challenge. He ends the book with a call to “act… now because the stakes have never been so high and the future so dark.” With George Bush continuing to damn young people and escalating the war against youth, young people and their allies are faced with no choice but to take action. These are our times, and as The Freechild Project has exposed, young people have the capacity. This book can serve as a powerful weapon in the fight.